Sonnat ka orèng binè'

Ḍâri Wikipèḍia bhâsa Madhurâ, lombhung pangataowan mardhika

Sonnat ka orèng binè' (bhâsa Inggris: female genital mutilation otabâ FGM) iyâ arèya maèlang sabâgiyân otabâ sakabbhina bâgiyân lowarra farji'na bâbinè'. Sonnat rèya segghut ètemmo è Afrika, Asia, bân Arab. UNICEF ara-kèra è taon 2016 bâḍâ 200 juta orèng binè’ sè èsonnat è 30 naghârâ tamaso’ Afrika, Inḍonèsia, Kurdistan Irak, bân Yaman).[1]

Kampanye anentang sonnat bâbinè' – jhâlân è Kapchorwa, Uganda.

Sonnat farji’ biayasana èkalako bi' dhukon ngangghuy toḍi' è bhâji' omor brâmpan arè sampè' bhâlligh bân satarossa. Cara sonnatta dhâ-bhidhâ. Bâdâ sè maèlang tudung klitoris bân glans klitoris, maèlang labia bâgiyân ḍâlem, bân maèlang labia bâgiyân ḍâlem bân bâgiyân lowar ètamba notop vulva (infibulasi). Anapon cara infibulasi iyâ arèya makarè lobâng kènè' ghâbây jhâlânna kemmè bi' haid bân bisa èbukka' polè ghâbây jima' sampè' rèmbi'.[2]

Mongghu tokang kritik, sonnat ka orèng binè' èsabâbaghi ta' paḍâna gender, ma'lè anahan napsona bâbinè' bân mènangka lambang soccè bân kabhâghusân. Sè nyonnat biyasana orèng binè' sè tako' bhâji'na ta' èyanggep bi' rèng-orèng.[3] Hasèl jhubâ' ka kasèhatan bisa sampè' infeksi, mlarat akemmi, nyèlo sè sanget, kista, ta' bisa nganḍung, mlarat lahèr, bân pendarahan sanget.[2] Sonnat ka orèng binè' taḍâ' manfaatta.[4]

Kalompo' internasional ampon ausaha sajjhek taon 1970 ma'lè bâbinè' ta' asonnat. Sonnat ka orèng binè' ampon èlarang è brâmpan naghârâ sè mabânnya' sonnat ka rèng binè' makkè ghi' bânnya' sè cengkal. È taon 2010, PBB alarang sonnat ka orèng binè' tamaso' reinfibulasi samarèna rèmbi' bân naḍhâ tudung klitoris sacara simbolis.[5] Rèng-orèng antropolog bânnya' sè alabân ḍâ' ka sonnat ka orèng binè' polana èsebbhut ro'-noro' bhuḍâjâ.[6][7]

Sebbhudhân[beccè' | beccè' sombher]

È taon 1980, sonnat ka orèng binè' èpabâḍâ ma'lè paḍâ bi' rèng lakè'.[8] Sajjhek taon 1929, Dewan Misionaris Kenya nyebbhut sonnat ka orèng binè' mènangka mutilasi seksual ka bâbinè' noro' oca' Marion Scott Stevenson, misionaris Gereja Skotlandia.[9] Sebbhudhân mutilasi sajân bânnya' è taon 1970.[10] Taon 1975, Rose Oldfield Hayes, antropolog Amerika Serikat nyebbhut oca' mutilasi farji' bâbinè' è jurnal American Ethnologist,[11] bân taon 1981, Fran Hosken, tokang tolès feminis Austria-Amerika, nyebbhut mutilasi è tolèsan Laporan Hosken: Mutilasi Kelamin dan Seksual terhadap Perempuan, karjâna sè anḍi' pangaro.[12] Kalompo' Inter-Afrika Praktik-Praktik Tradisional sè Apangaroè Kasèhadhân Bâbinè' bân Na'-Kana' (IAC) nyebbhut mutilasi è taon 1990 bân WHO noro'aghi è taon 1991.[3] Sebbhudhân è bhâsa Inggris (female genital cutting, èpakènè' FGC) bân mutilasi/ngeṭṭok farji' bâbinè' (female genital mutilation/cutting, èpakènè' FGM/C), lebbi èkasenneng bi' rèng-orèng sè alako bi' praktisi.[10]

Sombher[beccè' | beccè' sombher]

  1. "Female genital mutilation (FGM)". UNICEF. Aksès 5 Juli 2023.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Margairaz, Christiane; Boulvain, Michel; Irion, Olivier (6 Januwâri 2011). "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting". Swiss Medical Weekly. ISSN 1424-3997. PMID 21213149.
  3. 3,0 3,1 Cappa, Claudia, et al. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of the Dynamics of Change, New York: United Nations Children's Fund, Juli 2013.
  4. "Female genital mutilation", Geneva: World Health Organization, 31 Januari 2018.
  5. Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, FIGO, ICN, IOM, MWIA, WCPT, WMA, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
  6. Shell-Duncan, Bettina (Juni 2008). "From Health to Human Rights: Female Genital Cutting and the Politics of Intervention". American Anthropologist. 110 (2): 225–236. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1433.2008.00028.x. JSTOR 27563985. hal. 225
  7. Silverman, Eric K. (2004). "Anthropology and Circumcision". Annual Review of Anthropology. 33: 419–445. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143706. JSTOR 25064860.
  8. Nussbaum, Martha (1999). Sex and Social Justice. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195355017. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2023-01-10. Diakses tanggal 2020-05-17. hal. 199
  9. Karanja, James (2009). The Missionary Movement in Colonial Kenya: The Foundation of Africa Inland Church. Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag.
  10. 10,0 10,1 Eliminating Female genital mutilation: An Interagency Statement, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
  11. Hayes, Rose Oldfield (17 Juni 1975). "Female Genital Mutilation, Fertility Control, Women's Roles, and the Patrilineage in Modern Sudan: A Functional Analysis". American Ethnologist. 2 (4): 617–633. doi:10.1525/ae.1975.2.4.02a00030. JSTOR 643328.
  12. Hosken, Fran (1994). The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females. Lexington: Women's International Network.